Due to the evolution in farm technology farmers are able to cross breed both the animals and plants to get the most desired and productive breed you need. There is cloning in sheep to give a similar sheep as the end product. Technology has really helped in the farm.
What is grafting?
Grafting is the process of joining two separate steps in the farm; the root stock which is the plant that consists of the roots to the ground and the scion a section of another that consists of leaves or buds. This process is used mainly to encourage cross breeding of new plants and much more.
The process of grafting is done on plants of the same family or which are botanically related which can be compatible e.g. different species of avocados, a lemon and an orange plant, mangoes and guavas.
Types of grafting
- Tongue grafting
Before doing this type of grafting you should ensure the plants that should be grafted should have the same diameter. Tongue grafting involves joining the root stock and the scion by wrapping them together using a tight piece of cloth or a clean polythene strip.
When doing this cut the scion at a slanting angle and the root stock at a slanting angle too but in an opposite direction of the scion. Use a sharp knife to easily make the slanting angles in the plants.
- Side grafting
Side grafting is done when the scion has a smaller diameter that the root stock. What you need to do is use sterilized sharp knife to cut the scion also at a slanting angle, cut the root stock the same size as the scion. Then wrap it well with a grafting tape. Side grafting is done; wait for the plant to grow.
Other types of grafting include;
- Approach grafting
- Bark grafting
- Notch grafting
What is budding?
It involves uniting a vegetable bud into a root stock of another plant. It is not necessary the root stock to be a woody stem plant, it can be any plant but of the same botanic related family.
The vegetable bud should be inserted in a slit probably on the bark of the stock.
Methods of budding
T-budding is practiced by making t-shaped incision through the bark to down of the wood which should be 20 centimeters above the ground.
The bark is then raised and the bud carefully inserted, the bud is slid downwards the bark of the root stock until it lies between the edges of the bark. Then firmly tie the bud with the root stock using a rubber strips.
After two weeks inspect the plants and if the scion shows a green color or emerging of leaves it will be a clear indication that the plant was accepted by the root stock.
The stock is then cut a few centimeters above the union of the scion and the root stock and the green bud should be left to develop to produce a shoot. When the bud reaches 30 centimeters it should be tied to a strong stake to avoid its breakage caused by wing and by itself.
- Top budding
Involves budding small tress where the buds are inserted at the desired location of the plants by the farmer, this process allows the plants to produce different types of fruits on the same plant as long as they belong to the same botanic family.
- Patch budding
It is the removal of a scion from the back of another plant and inserting it into the patch where the bark of the root stock has been removed and the firmly tied.
The importance of practicing grafting and budding to plants in the farm
- These processes help in reducing the maturity age of plants in the farm.
- Damaged plants or tree by either animals or human activities can be repaired.
- Helps in propagating clones of plants.
- It is easy and possible to grow different type of fruits on one plant.
- Facilitates the changing of the top of the from the undesired species.
What is layering?
Layering is a process of making a branch of a tree to develop roots separately from the main tree plant.
Types of layering
- Aerial layering
Aerial layering is made when the branch of the tree is a bit higher from the ground and the branch cannot be bent directly to the ground. Therefore a take a small amount of soil, then use a piece of cloth to wrap the soil around the place of the stem or branch you want the roots.
- Tip layering
The tip of the branch is bent down to the ground and then the branch covered by some soil and use pegs to keep the stem down the soil. After developing the roots then the branch is cut and transplanted to another place.
- Trench layering
The branch is bent down to a ready dug trench, lay the branch properly in the trench then it is pegged with several pegs to keep down in the soil. Cover the branch with soil then water it until the roots starts protruding.
After the roots are formed you can now cut the branch and transplant it to your desired location.
- Compound layering
A branch to be used for layering is laid or bent down severally and held in position by the use of pegs. This forms different roots in the same stem.